- Technical Report: Subsurface Injection of In Situ Remedial Reagents (ISRRs)Within the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board Jurisdiction Enhanced Attenuation – Chlorinated Organics
Many sites with chlorinated organic contamination in groundwater throughout the nation have gone through extensive remedial evaluations and actions. The remedial alternatives for many of these sites include high-energy treatments such as pump-and-treat systems. After years of operation, the effectiveness of these high-energy processes has begun to diminish without remedial objectives being met. Other more effective remedial alternatives need to be implemented; however, there is a lack of guidance available to regulators and the environmental community regarding how and when to transition these sites to lower-energy remedial alternatives and eventually to monitored natural attenuation (MNA). To answer this need, the ITRC Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics (EACO) Team developed this guidance, which includes a protocol to assist in a smooth transition (or a bridge) between aggressive remedial actions and MNA, and thus the concept of enhanced attenuation (EA) was born.
- A Framework for Assessing the Sustainability of Monitored Natural Attenuation
A Framework for Assessing the Sustainability of Monitored Natural Attenuation? outlines methodology for assessing the efficiency and sustainability of MNA. As such, it provides environmental managers with a scientific basis for identifying sites where MNA is sustainable and therefore an appropriate part of overall site remediation. Just as importantly, it also helps identify those sites where MNA may not be sustainable and therefore not appropriate for site remediation.
- In-Situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Ethene DNAPL Source Zones: A Resource Guide
This resource guide provides a compilation of relevant scientific and technical literature on the bioremediation of chlorinated ethene Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs). In that regard, the resource guide is designed to help regulators, technology practitioners, site owners and others develop a consistent approach to the basic principles, terminology, and technical features of bioremediation.
- Edible Oil Barriers for Treatment of Perchlorate Contaminated Groundwater
The demonstration was conducted at a confidential site in Maryland with a mixed perchlorate and 1,1,1-TCA groundwater plume. The primary objective of this project was to evaluate the cost and performance of an emulsified oil permeable reactive barrier (PRB) to control the migration of perchlorate plumes at DoD installations.
- Protocol for Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation Using Emulsified Edible Oil
Protocol for Enhanced In Situ Bioremediation Using Emulsified Edible Oil (ER-0221). This report was published by the DoD Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP). Emulsified edible oils have been used to stimulate in situ anaerobic biodegradation of groundwater contaminants at commercial, industrial and military sites throughout the US. The procedures and applications of emulsified oils for the anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated solvents are applicable to numerous other anaerobically biodegradable contaminants like nitrates, perchlorates, and energetics (e.g., RDX, TNT). The protocol presented in this document is intended to assist base managers and project engineers in: (1) determining if the emulsified oil process is appropriate for their site; and (2) designing and implementing this technology.
- In-situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons - An Assessment of Projects in California February, 2006
- Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid Cleanup: Accomplishments at Twelve NPL Sites
This document was prepared by Serena Ryan, a National Network for Environmental Management Studies (NNEMS) grantee under a fellowship from the U.S. EPA. The objective of this report is to provide an overview of remedial accomplishments at 12 current or former NPL sites affected by DNAPL and/or associated dissolved, vapor, or sorbed phase contamination. This report summarizes relevant information about these sites, including site sizes, contaminants, technologies, concentration level reductions, and current remedial status. A discussion of DNAPL characteristics, fate and transport, as well as a summary of DNAPL remediation technologies is also included. Case studies of individual sites are also provided (August 2010, 84 pages).
- Impacts of DNAPL Source Treatment: Experimental and Modeling Assessment of the Benefits of Partial DNAPL Source Removal (EPA 600-R-09-096)
When it is not practical or economically feasible to achieve complete DNAPL mass depletion using aggressive remediation techniques, it must be determined if the aggregate benefits of partial DNAPL mass depletion are sufficient to reduce risks to an acceptable level and if the costs associated with this partial depletion are justified by the benefits received. This report summarizes field, lab, and modeling research conducted to address these issues, with the primary objective being the development of a scientifically defensible approach for assessing the long-term environmental impacts (benefits) of DNAPL removal from source zones (September 2009, 172 pages).
DOS model to calculate DNAPL partitioning in soil, and groundwater.
- In-Situ Chemical Oxidation: A Study of the Current State of the Technology
Chemical oxidation is one of the many different methods of site remediation that has emerged lately as an alternative method to traditional techniques. Chemical oxidation is based upon the theory that by introducing certain reactive chemicals into the contaminated aquifer, the contaminant in question can be converted into less harmful compounds in a relatively automated process. After the reactive chemicals (reagents) are introduced into the aquifer, they work by themselves and are driven by the internal chemical energy. Furthermore, chemical oxidation has been shown to be effective at the destruction of the dissolved phase of non-aqueous
- An Illustrated Handbook of DNAPL Transport and Fate in the Subsurface
- Contaminant Focus - Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs)
EPA's Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation has released a website that compiles available information related to the cleanup of dense nonaqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) at hazardous waste sites.
- AFCEE Source Zone Initiative
AFCEE/TDV teamed with researchers from Colorado State University and the Colorado School of Mines. The focus of this broad-ranging project to investigate DNAPL source zone fate and transport was to build a set of tools that will assist Air Force remedial project managers and other stakeholders in addressing and successfully meeting this environmental restoration challenge
Industry Resources - Technology
- ISCO Technical & Regulatory Guidance
- EPA In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Engineering Issue Paper
This issue paper was produced by the EPA Risk Management Research Laboratory and the Engineering Forum. It provides an up-to-date overview of ISCO remediation technology and fundamentals, and is developed based on peer-reviewed literature, EPA reports, web sources, current research, conference proceedings, and other pertinent information.
- In-Situ Chemical Oxidation: A Study of the Current State of the Technology
Chemical oxidation is one of the many different methods of site remediation that has emerged lately as an alternative method to traditional techniques. Chemical oxidation is based upon the theory that by introducing certain reactive chemicals into the contaminated aquifer, the contaminant in question can be converted into less harmful compounds in a relatively automated process. After the reactive chemicals (reagents) are introduced into the aquifer, they work by themselves and are driven by the internal chemical energy. Furthermore, chemical oxidation has been shown to be effective at the destruction of the dissolved phase of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL), which are known to be difficult to remediate through other tactics. Therefore, if administered correctly, in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has the potential to be a low-cost, fast, effective, and relatively low maintenance remediation technology.
- Vironex In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Survey (2006)
- A Decision-Making Framework for Cleanup of Sites Impacted with Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPL)
A Decision-Making Framework for cleanup of sites impacted with light, non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL) has been prepared by the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF) NAPL Cleanup Alliance to provide a guide to practicable and reasonable approaches for management of LNAPL petroleum hydrocarbons in the subsurface. This unique document describes an innovative consensus-based process to develop a long-term vision for a particular site (e.g., an industrial site for the next 100 years with groundwater standards attained in 125 years), while providing a roadmap that calls for specific goals and endpoints to measure progress during each phase of the LNAPL management project.
- Army Environmental Cleanup Strategic Plan for FY 08/09
- The Air Force Technology Transfer Program
This web site provides an in-depth look into the history, technology evaluation process, and future focus of the Technology Transfer Program. The objective of the web site is to provide users with simple and easily understood descriptions of successful remedial technologies having undergone the process of formulation, demonstration, and validation. This web site contains the many tools made available through the Technology Transfer Program.
- Revitalizing America's Mills- November 2006
EPA has released a report entitled "Revitalizing America's Mills: A Report on Brownfields Mills Project. The 32-page report discusses "the challenges faced and solutions found during the EPA-supported revitalization of more than 350 mill sites throughout the nation.
- Land Revitalization and Reuse
As part of its mission to protect human health and the environment, U.S. EPA is dedicated to revitalizing land by restoring contaminated and potentially contaminated sites to productive economic and greenspace use. Through this web site, you can find a variety of information about revitalization and reuse Information includes revitalization tools and resources, hazardous site inventories with site profiles and information, funding information, and relevant publications and documents, as well as examples of land revitalization projects with a focus on EPA Region 4.
- FIN47 Poses Hard Questions
Public companies were required to implement FIN 47, and to report any associated charges to earnings, no later than the end of the fiscal year ending after December 15, 2005. From their financial reports, it is apparent that companies are taking different approaches to identifying, estimating, and disclosing environmental liabilities associated with future retirement of fixed assets.
- The Government Accountability Office (GAO) Release of Reports, Testimony, and Correspondence
Environmental Contamination: Lessons Learned from the Cleanup of Formerly Used Defense and Military Munitions Sites. GAO-09-779T,
June 10 Report
- California Governor Arnold Schwarznegger Signs Assembly Bill 422 Into Law
This bill would require that the exposure assessment of any health or ecological risk assessment prepared in conjunction with a response action taken or approved pursuant to the California Superfund Act include the development of reasonable maximum estimates of exposure to volatile organic compounds that may enter structures that are on the site or that are proposed to be constructed on the site and may cause exposure due to accumulation of those volatile organic compounds in the indoor air of those structures
- Leaking Underground Storage Tanks - February 2007
EPA should take steps to better ensure the effective use of public funding for cleanups - United States Government Accountability office.
- EPA Publishes Final Rule On All Appropriate Inquiries
The final rule establishes specific regulatory requirements for conducting all appropriate inquiries into the previous ownership, uses, and environmental conditions of a property for the purposes of qualifying for certain landowner liability protections under CERCLA. Analysis
- Special Committee on Environmental Disclosure, October 2005
- GAO Report: Groundwater Remediation Technologies
The Brownfields redevelopment movement may benefit from this reporting obligation if 'mothballing' – the practice of fencing-off contaminated property indefinitely to delay or avoid cleanup costs – becomes a thing of the past. Indeed, companies may now decide to remediate or sell previously mothballed properties to avoid disclosure of these environmental liabilities in their financial statements.
- State Status in the Implementation of Institutional Controls: Summary of Inventory Findings
This report was published by the Association of State and Territorial Solid Waste Management Officials (ASTSWMO). The State Superfund Focus Group conducted an inventory of the States and Territories to determine how they are approaching the subject of Institutional Controls (ICs). The objective of this research focused on learning "who's doing what" relative to the use, management, tracking, and enforcement of ICs, and any perceived barriers to their implementation, in order to share this information with all the States, Territories, and EPA (June 2007, 15 pages).
MTBE and TBA
NAVFAC's Environmental Interactive Web Training Tools
- Perchlorate Fact Sheet - Dec. 2007
This fact sheet provides a brief summary for perchlorate, including physical and chemical properties; environmental and health impacts; existing federal and state guidelines; detection and treatment methods; and additional sources of information. Perchlorate is a persistent contaminant of increasing concern to the government, private sector, and other organizations and interested parties. Research about perchlorate is ongoing and encompasses health effects and risks,
Rapid Site Characterization
- Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Management of Chlorinated Solvents in Soils and Groundwater
The following Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) document provides a concise overview of current knowledge regarding management of subsurface chlorinated solvent releases. The envisioned audience is state regulators, federal regulators, consultants, Department of Defense (DoD) staff, and community members involved in selecting remedies for chlorinated solvent sites. The document is intended to provide current knowledge in support of sound decisions. It is not intended to foster or discourage source zone treatment, but to help practitioners who are faced with difficult decisions, and to lay the groundwork for developing realistic expectations regarding the outcome of such treatments. Our hope is that the document contributes to better use of resources, more effective remediation and risk management, and more productive cooperation between the parties involved in site cleanups.
- Treatment Technologies for 1,4-Dioxane: Fundamentals and Field Applications
1,4-Dioxane is a solvent stabilizer frequently found at contaminated sites where methyl chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane) was used for degreasing. This report profiles the occurrence and properties of 1,4-dioxane and provides a summary of the available remedial technologies. The information presented should prove useful to project managers and other regulatory officials who oversee cleanup of contaminated groundwater, particularly where chlorinated solvents are the principal contaminant.
- Evidence Growing On Health Risks From TCE; Current Data Are Sufficient For EPA To Finalize Risk Assessment Framework for Metals Risk Assessment
- REMChlor Model - The Remediation Evaluation Model for Chlorinated Solvents
Is an analytical solution for simulating the transient effects of groundwater source and plume remediation. In the analytical method, the contaminant source model is based on a power function relationship between source mass and source discharge, and it can consider partial source remediation at any time after the initial release. The plume model simulates first order sequential decay and production of several species, and the decay rates and parent/daughter yield coefficients are variable functions of time and distance. Cancer risks posed by carcinogenic species in the plume are calculated assuming that the contaminated water is used in a house for drinking, bathing, and other household uses.
Zero Valent Iron (ZVI)
The Geoprobe® 8040 offers increased power and more versatility over the 78 and 66 Series of Direct Push Rigs. It is fitted with a GH-80 Hammer designed to advance tooling to greater depths in tougher formations. To go along with the increased hammer force, the rig has 80,000 pounds of retraction force. It is capable of advancing 4.5 inch direct push tooling to facilitate installation of 2 inch Pre-Packed Wells. The Geoprobe® is mounted on a remote controlled Track Base with an Electronic Diagnostic System to safeguard the unit and help the operator quickly diagnose problems in the field. The machine is documented CE compliant with all essential health and safety requirements set out in European Directives using the appropriate conformity assessment procedures.
The Geoprobe® 7822 offers increased power and more versatility over the 77 and 66 Series of Direct Push Rigs. It is fitted with a GH-64 Hammer designed to advance tooling to greater depths and improved surface pavement coring. The rig has 36,000 pounds of down force and 48,000 pounds of retraction force. The Geoprobe® is mounted on a remote controlled Track Base with a Rear stabilizer and Drop Rack System. The machine is documented CE compliant with all essential health and safety requirements set out in European Directives using the appropriate conformity assessment procedures.
The Geoprobe® 6620 offers increased power 54 Series of Direct Push Rigs. The rig is fitted with a powerful GH-62 Hammer and has 35,000 pounds of down force and 47,000 pounds of retraction force. The Geoprobe® is mounted on a remote controlled Track Base which makes it well suited for off-road or limited access applications.
The Geoprobe® 6600 offers increased power 54 Series of Direct Push Rigs. The rig is fitted with a powerful GH-62 Hammer and has 34,000 pounds of down force and 46,000 pounds of retraction force. The Geoprobe® is mounted within a PC-111 enclosed box on the rear of a 4x4 Ford F-550 Chassis. The PC-111 Probe Carrier offers ample amounts of dry storage, water storage, work lights, etc.
The Geoprobe® 5410 replaced the early 5400 rigs, it offers double the structural strength but weighs the same. The rig is fitted with a GH-42 Hammer and has 21,700 pounds of down force and 28,900 pounds of retraction force. The Geoprobe® is mounted within an enclosed box on the rear of a 4x4 Ford Chassis. The Probe Carrier Box offers ample amounts of dry storage, water storage, work lights, etc.
The Geoprobe® 5410MT is based off of the 5400 platform. The rig is fitted with a GH-42 Hammer and has 18,000 pounds of down force and 25,000 pounds of retraction force. The Geoprobe® will fit through a standard door and will work within an 8 foot ceiling height, both of which make it well suited for limited access applications.